Atman ATMAN: The individual self stands self – proved and is always immediately felt and known. One is absolutely certain about the existence of one’s own self and there can be neither doubt nor denial regarding its existence. This individual self is the highest thing we know and it is the nearest approach to the … Read more


THE UPANISADS THE UPANISADS: The Upanisads which are the concluding portion as the cream of the Veda and are therefore rightly called ‘Vedanta’. The word ‘Upanisads’ is derived from the root ‘sad’ which means : To sit down To destroy To loosen. ‘Upa’ means ‘near by’ and ‘ni’ means, ‘devotedly’. The word therefore means the … Read more


MAYA OR AVIDYA MAYA OR AVIDYA: Sometimes it is said that the doctrine of Maya or Aviddya is either borrowed by Shankara from Buddhism or it is a fabrication of the fertile brain of Shankara. Both this views are wrong. The fact is that the theory of Maya is present in the Upanisads and Shankara … Read more


THE VEDAS THE VEDAS: We are concerned here only with the philosophical thought of the Vedic period. As we have already remarked, we find little philosophy in the pre-Upanisadic thought. But the seeds of the important philosophical trends might be easily traced there. Moreover, there has been  gradual development of the philosophical thought from the … Read more


Brahman From the objective sides this ultimate reality is called Brahman. The word is derived from the root ‘Brh’ which means to grow or to evolve. In the beginning it meant sacrifice, then prayer and then it acquired its present meaning of ultimate reality which evolves itself as this world. Brahman is that which spontaneously … Read more